Growth performance and thyroid hormones of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frissi, juveniles in response to dietary carbohydrate levels


1 Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Guilan, Iran

2 Department of Fisheries, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a practical diet containing different carbohydrate levels on growth rate, feed utilization, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Caspian kutum fingerlings. Fish with an initial average weight of 0.8 ± 0.2 g were fed five formulated isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with different carbohydrate levels of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 % in triplicate groups for 10 weeks. Based on the results, growth performance of Rutilus frissi was significantly affected by the dietary carbohydrate levels (P < 0.05). Maximum weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio was observed in the fish fed diet with 35 % carbohydrate. Results of thyroid hormones showed that T4 levels were not significantly different by different carbohydrate levels (P > 0.05). The highest amount of T4 was observed in kutum juveniles fed with a carbohydrate level of 15 %. The levels of T4 were significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels (P < 0.05) with the highest amount in kutum juveniles fed 15 % of carbohydrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that increasing carbohydrate levels from 15 to 35 %, with no negative effects on growth parameters in R. frissi juveniles, leads to an efficient protein ratio and optimal growth. Moreover, no clear correlation was found between fish growth and thyroid hormones.