Cypermethrin induced stress and changes in growth of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus


1 Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, W.B., 741235, India

2 Department of Zoology, Vivekananda Mahavidyalaya, Hooghly, W.B., 712405, India


Bioassays were conducted with technical grade and commercial formulation of cypermethrin using freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus as the test fish. The technical grade cypermethrin contained 92% active ingredient (a.i.) and the commercial formulation was an emulsified concentrate (EC) containing 10% a.i. (10% EC). Based on the actual concentration in water (2 h), the commercial formulation was found to be more acutely toxic to O. niloticus (96-h LC50 = 4.85 μg/L) than the technical grade cypermethrin (96-h LC50 = 9.74 μg/L). Exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (1.25, 2.5 μg/L) of commercial cypermethrin for 96 h produced stress on the fish, which was evident from the reduction of hepatic glycogen, reduction in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase and catalase in liver and elevation of plasma glucose level and activities of hepatic acid phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Exposure to these concentrations of cypermethrin for 14–28 days produced anaemia in fish. Long-term exposure (90 days) of the fish to these concentrations reduced the growth and deposition of protein and lipid in the body of fish as compared to control. It is concluded from this study that even minute concentration (1.25 μg/L) of cypermethrin (10% EC) in water can produce stress on fish. Long term exposure to such concentration of cypermethrin may also affect growth of the fish.