Oxidative effect of L-carnitine on energy metabolism in diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): impact on metabolites

Document Type : Original Article


1 Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, CIIMAR-UP, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208, Matosinhos, Portugal

2 ICBAS-UP, Abel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira n.º 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal

3 CHO-Hospital Centre of Porto, Lg. Prof. Abel Salazar, 4099-001, Porto, Portugal



L-Carnitine plays a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism and growth in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary L-carnitine levels on carnitine homeostasis and energy metabolism in diploid and triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Diploid and triploid trout (29.5 ± 0.6 and 31.8 ± 0.5 g, respectively) were fed with three diets supplemented with 15, 200 or 530 mg L-carnitine/kg, respectively, for 56 days. Compared to 15 mg L-carnitine, total carnitine content increased in the liver by 182% in diploid and by 154% in triploid trout fed 530 mg L-carnitine. In muscle, total carnitine content increased by 60 and 73% in diploid and by 34 and 75% in triploid with the increase in dietary L-carnitine levels. L-Carnitine caused no significant change in the plasma concentrations of metabolites like proteins (ammonia, urea and protein), lipid (triglycerides), carbohydrate (glucose, lactate) and enzyme activities (lipase, lactate, alanine transaminase, lactic acid dehydrogenase). Triploid trout had significantly lower plasma ammonia (P = 0.003), lipase (P = 0.005) and triiodothyronine (T3; P = 0.003) levels than diploid trout. In conclusion, ploidy significantly affected the energy metabolism in rainbow trout, dietary L-carnitine levels altered the L-carnitine homeostasis, but not influence nutritional metabolism.