Sponge-associated fungi from a mangrove habitat in Indonesia: species composition, antimicrobial activity, enzyme screening and bioactive profiling

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, St. Prof. Soedarto SH., Semarang, 50275, Central Java, Indonesia

2 Marine Science Techno Park (MSTP), Teluk Awur Campus, St. UNDIP, Jepara District, 59427, Central Java, Indonesia

3 Biotechnology Research Center, Department of Biotechnology, Toyama Prefectural University, Imizu, Toyama, Japan

4 Tropical Marine Biotechnology Laboratory, Building of Marine and Oceanography Laboratory Lv. 2, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, St. Prof. Soedarto SH., Semarang, 50275, Central Java, Indonesia

5 Marine Natural Products Laboratory, Building of Central Laboratory Lv. 2, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, St. Prof. Soedarto SH., Semarang, 50275, Central Java, Indonesia

6 Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology, St. KS. Tubun Petamburan VI, Jakarta, 10260, Indonesia

7 Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, St. Prof. Soedarto SH., Semarang, 50275, Central Java, Indonesia

10.1007/s40071-019-0227-8

Abstract

There is no report of diversity, biological properties and bioactive compounds of sponge-associated fungi from Indonesia’s mangrove ecosystem to date. This study was designed to isolate sponge-associated fungi from a mangrove ecosystem in Mangkang, to screen the antimicrobial and extracellular enzyme properties of the isolates, characterize the biologically promising isolates using molecular approaches, and profile the secondary metabolites using phytochemical and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses. An unidentified sponge that lived in association with mangrove roots was collected from Mangkang. Total of eight associated fungi were isolated from the sponge. Among all isolates, only two fungi SPMKF 1 and SPMKF 6 produced extracellular amylase, another two fungi SPMKF 4 and 5 showed antibacterial activity against MRSA, and only one fungus SPMKF 8 was able to produce extracellular amylase and show antimicrobial activity against ESBL EcoliSalmonella enterica ser. Typhi strain MDR and Calbicans, while SPMKF 2, SPMKF 3 and SPMKF 9 did not show any biological properties. The result of genetic characterization proved that SPMKF 1 was Cladosporium tenuissimum, SPMKF 4 was Eutypella sp., SPMKF 5 was Lasiodiplodia theobromae, SPMKF 6 was Fusarium keratoplasticum and SPMKF 8 was Fsolani. Furthermore, an amylase gene was detected in fungi SPMKF 1, 6 and 8 while among the BGC, only NRPS genes were detected in SPMKF 4, 5 and 8. Interestingly, several same metabolites indicating the same retention factor (Rf) values in TLC were detected in the fungal crude extracts by TLC.

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